Exercise 9.3

  1. The production of dad when attempting to read out loud the word father is a semantic paralexia, a confusion of two words that are related in meaning.
  2. Saying tantrum for tandem is a visual paralexia, i.e. mixing up two words that look similar.
  3. Saying scent for perfect is a mix of visual and semantic paralexias, and could be explained by arguing that the patient saw scent as perfume (semantic confusion) and then read this as perfect (a word related visually to perfume)
  4. Producing helpless for helpful is a morphological paralexia - the two words are related forms from the same base (help).